SNPs for cholinesterase inhibitor sensitivity

I've been trying to understand the potential causes of cholinesterase viagra cialis online pharmacy pharmacy sensitivity. My leading theory at this point relates to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting the genes for encoding and promotion of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

I've found several papers and a couple of books that relate to these genes and talk about polymorphisms which can result in being more susceptible to cholinesterase inhibitors. I've also signed up for 23andMe which hopefully in 8 more weeks or so will allow me to see which version I have of many of them. If, that is, I can figure out the mapping...

First off, it turns out that there are two ways of reporting the alleles for a given SNP: A=T; C=G. SNPedia uses one way, and 23andMe uses the opposite way. A partial explanation of this is at This isn't complicated, but it does make your head hurt more when trying to compare them.

Secondly, the various sources aren't using a consistent naming scheme. I've tried to start making a table to cross reference the names I've found in the papers to the "rs" codes that 23andMe and SNPedia both use (see It's a clunky way to do it, and I'm fantasizing about making something with django to do the job better. So, I'm kinda stuck on that project until I either bite the bullet and do it clunky way, or learn enough django to do it the fancy way and possibly enter a bottomless development hole...

Finally, three SNPs into the project I ran into a possible numbering discrepancy. The paper lists the SNP as position -162 on the PON1 gene. SNPedia doesn't list a SNP there, but lists Rs705381 at position -161. Is it the same one?

How many more of these things are going to almost but not quite line up? Aaaahhhh!


The Food and Drug Administration today announced the approval of viagra (sildenafil citrate), the first oral pill to treat impotence, a dysfunction that affects millions of men in the United States.
Unlike previously approved treatments for impotence, cialis does not directly cause penile erections, but affects the response to sexual stimulation. The drug acts by enhancing the smooth muscle relaxant effects of nitric oxide, a chemical that is normally released in response to sexual stimulation. This smooth muscle relaxation allows increased blood flow into certain areas of the penis leading to an erection.
Viagra was evaluated in numerous randomized, placebo controlled trials involving more than 3000 men with varying degrees of impotence associated with diabetes, spinal cord injury, history of prostate surgery, and no identifiable organic cause of impotence. Patients also had a wide range of other concomitant illnesses including hypertension and coronary artery disease.
The drug's effectiveness was assessed primarily using a sexual function questionnaire. Patients were asked to report at the beginning, and periodically throughout the studies, how often they were able to achieve an erection adequate for intercourse, and how often that erection was maintained after penetration. In addition, patients kept diaries of their sexual histories. In all trials, men on Viagra reported success more often than did men on placebo, and rates of success increased with dose. The findings were consistent in men representing a wide range of severity and etiology of their erectile dysfunction (impotence). Men with diabetes or radical prostate surgery had somewhat less improvement than did other groups.
The recommended dose is 50mg taken one hour before sexual activity; individuals may need more (100mg) or less (25 mg) and dosing should be determined by a physician depending on effectiveness and side effects. The drug should not be used more than once a day.
The most common side effects reported in clinical trials included headache, flushing, and indigestion, which occurred at a slightly higher rate in patients taking the drug than among those taking placebo. Some patients on Viagra (about 3 percent) also reported changes in vision, principally altered color perception.
The drug should not be used with organic nitrates such as nitroglycerin patches or sublingual tablets because the combination may lower blood pressure. The safety and efficacy of using Viagra with other treatments for impotence has not been studied, and the use of such combinations is not recommended.
Viagra confers no resistance to AIDS or other sexually transmitted diseases.
Before taking Viagra, patients are advised to:
Have a thorough medical history and physical examination to diagnose impotence, determine underlying causes and identify appropriate treatment, and
discuss the cardiac risk associated with sexual activity prior to initiating any treatment for impotence.Viagra is manufactured by Pfizer Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY. The product was approved by FDA in less than six months after submission. The FDA's clinical review of the studies, approval letter and labeling can be found on the internet at

Conversion Disorder - An Interesting Illness

Conversion disorder is a condition in which a person has blindness, paralysis, or other nervous system (neurologic) symptoms that cannot be explained.


Conversion disorder symptoms may occur because of emotional distress or psychological problems.

Symptoms usually begin suddenly after a stressful experience. People are more at risk for a conversion disorder if they also have a medical illness, dissociative disorder, or personality disorder.

Some doctors falsely believe that conversion disorder and similar disorders are not real conditions, and may tell patients that the problem is "all in your head." However, these conditions are real. They cause distress and cannot be turned on and off at will. Research on the mind-body connection may eventually increase understanding of these disorders.


Symptoms of a conversion disorder include the loss of one or more bodily functions, such as:

  • Blindness

  • Inability to speak

  • Numbness

  • Paralysis

Diagnostic testing does not find any physical cause for the symptoms.

Exams and Tests

Common signs of conversion disorder include:

  • A debilitating symptom that begins suddenly

  • A history of a psychological problem that gets better after the symptom appears

  • A lack of concern that usually occurs with a severe symptom

Your doctor will do a physical examination, and possibly diagnostic tests, to rule out physical causes for the symptom.


Psychotherapy and stress management training may help reduce symptoms. The affected body part or physical function will need physical or occupational therapy until the symptoms disappear. For example, paralyzed limbs must be exercised to prevent muscle wasting.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Symptoms usually last for days to weeks and may suddenly go away. Usually the symptom itself is not life threatening, but complications can be debilitating.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you or someone you know has symptoms of a conversion disorder.

Alternative Names

Hysterical neurosis


Moore DP, Jefferson JW. Conversion disorder. In: Moore DP, Jefferson JW, eds. Handbook of Medical Psychiatry. 2nd cheap cialis. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2004: chap 91.

Ferri FF. Conversion disorder. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2008: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2008.

Update Date: 10/17/2008

Updated by: Linda Vorvick, MD, Seattle Site Coordinator, Lecturer, Pathophysiology, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Timothy A. Rogge, MD, private practice in Psychiatry, Kirkland, Washington. Also reviewed byDavid Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission ( URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy, editorial process and privacy policy. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2010, A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.

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